Law is an ordered set of rules developed and enforced by governmental or societal institutions to socially regulate behavior. It is often differentially defined as the discipline and art of law. The study of law is known as Jusuru, the legal studies, and it seeks to understand the workings of law as a form of learning about society and human nature at large. Law and legal study in Japan are also referred to as Jitsu.
Law was one of the most ancient fields of study, with the emphasis being on its use as a means of resolving disputes between individuals, groups or institutions. Early writings from India, China, Egypt and other cultures show that the law had been highly regarded as an important educational and judicial system for all of these societies. In the earliest days, the law was much more concerned with creating rules for behavior that could be binding, rather than having anything to do with the outcomes of contests among individuals. The development of common law throughout Europe greatly influenced criminal law all over Europe. Early Latin texts were also heavily influenced by Roman law.
Law and Jurisprudence are the study of laws and legal systems around the world that have evolved over time, which have developed to form the basis for contemporary debate. This includes issues such as the regulation of domestic violence, corporate fraud, intellectual property rights, family law, contract law, maritime law, and family matters such as adoption, divorce, marriage, division of properties, child custody and alimony. Law varies immensely from country to country, as it is influenced by culture, religion, ideology, heritage and the society in which the law is implemented. The concepts and ideas of law can also be quite different, as they are not tied to any particular political theory.
The common law is the body of laws that have been derived from the legal systems of many independent countries and which are rooted in the history of those cultures. Within the jurisdiction of a country, a variety of jurisdictions are used to develop judicial systems. Within these jurisdictions, there are variations in terms of the nature and construction of the laws. There are two types of legal systems: universal and colonial law. Colonial law refers to laws that originate from other countries.
Civil law jurisdictions consist of laws that apply only within a country, and which are derived from the governing structures of individual countries. The major jurisdictions of civil law include common law jurisdictions, proprietary, contract law, and probate jurisdictions. The major branches of civil law are criminal justice, corporate law, family law, and civil procedure. Criminal justice incorporates various penal codes from across the countries, while corporate and probate jurisdiction deals exclusively with corporations and estates. Family law governs family matters such as marriage, domestic violence, adoption, divorce, termination of parental rights, legitimacy, and the like.
Civil laws are generally divided into two main categories: criminal law and legislative law. Criminal laws are primarily concerned with punishment, while statutory laws provide the basis for the validity and enforceability of certain laws. Statutory laws are divided into two categories: civil and criminal. Civil laws seek to address concerns regarding the public’s safety. Civil law can be either a federal, state, or local law. Statutory laws are legislation passed by the legislative body of a country.
Canon law is an example of an empirical body of law. Canon law exists to govern conduct that is perceived to violate established moral or ethical principles. This body of law continues to influence societal decisions even after it has been incorporated in a legislative body. For instance, in the United States, the decisions surrounding same-sex marriage are governed by the Canon Law.
PIersonism refers to the rights recognized by the United States Constitution to substantive as well as procedural law. The substantive cases involve civil and criminal law, while the procedural cases involve only a limited right to trial by jury. These include the freedom of speech, right to trial by judge and right to representation. Therefore, United States citizens who have any number of criminal defense lawyers at their disposal are entitled to the best legal council possible.